The toxin profile of this strain was characterized as primarily producing gonyautoxins (GTX) 1&4, with low levels of GTX 2&3 and saxitoxin
observed (Negri et al.
derivatives are regularly dissolved in chloridric or acetic acid for better stability, so before the fixation procedure, the toxins were lyophilized and resuspended in 25 mM MES buffer (Sigma-Aldrich, MO).
Newcombe G, Nicholson B (2002) Treatment options for the saxitoxins
class of cyanotoxins.
With a website in place, a quick check would have given Wertheim everything he needed to know about the dangers associated with saxitoxins
In subsequent research, the scientists discovered that the resistance to PSTs is caused by a mutation in the gene for sodium channels, which makes them more than 1,000 times less sensitive to saxitoxin
1989) considered saxitoxin
vectored by mackerel (Scomber scombrus) as the cause of 14 humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae) mortalities in the Cape Cod Bay area during late 1988 and early 1989.
TOXIC EFFECTS: Could contain saxitoxin
- a few mgs.
At least 15 humpback whales were poisoned by eating fish saturated with saxitoxin
(a toxic byproduct of algae growth associated with red tide).
Effects of products released by Aphanizomenon flos-aquae and purified saxitoxin
on the movements of Daphnia carinata feeding appendages.
Although known for centuries it was not until the seventies that the first structure, that of saxitoxin
, was established.
For instance, the poisons tetrodotoxin, saxitoxin
and [mu]-conotoxin differ chemically, but they all block sodium ion channels by binding to the proteins that make up the channels.
In contrast, the guanidine alkaloids saxitoxin
(STX) and tetrodotoxin (TTX) and the pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) are potent natural poisons, introduced, respectively, into coastal ocean, freshwater, or terrestrial communities (Ober and Hartmann, 1999; Lefebvre et al.