Toxin profiles in unconsumed puffer fish fillets (n = 4) from a 2004 PFP event were confirmed by HPLC (Figure 2A,B) and LC-MS (Figure 2C-F) to be STX (92.4% [+ or -] 3.1), decarbamoyl saxitoxin
(dcSTX; 6.9% [+ or -] 2.4), and N-sulfocarbamoyl B1 toxin (B1; 0.7% [+ or -] 0.7) as originally found in a 2002 PFP case (Quilliam et al.
, a toxic marine natural product that targets a multitude of receptors.
A confirmed case also met this case definition and had detectable saxitoxins
in urine or levels [greater than or equal to] 80 [micro]g saxitoxins/100 g of meat (the level at which product is considered unsafe) in the shellfish that had been consumed before illness onset.
The paralytic alkaloid saxitoxin
(STX) is a potent neurotoxin synthesized by marine dinoflagellates (Fig.
was the lowest of the 10 detected toxins.
The limit of detection for the assay is 0.015 ng/mL according to the manufacturer (Saxitoxin
PSP ELISA, product no.
No filets associated with the Florida illnesses were available for testing to confirm the presence of saxitoxin
. However, ongoing statewide sampling of pufferfish in Florida has indicated that pufferfish containing saxitoxins
are limited to the Indian and South Banana rivers.
These results are consistent with the presence of saxitoxin
Researchers at the Woods Hole Center for Oceans and Human Health will focus on saxitoxins
, a group of more than 20 neurotoxins that cause paralytic shellfish poisoning.
Laboratory examination of the uneaten mussels detected saxitoxin
concentrations of 24,400 [micro]g/100 g in the raw mussels and 4280 [micro]g/100 g in the cooked mussels (maximum safe level: 80 [micro]g/100 g).
arenaria promotes a resistance to saxitoxin
produced by dinoflagellates.
Currently, 20 types of paralytic shellfish poisons (PSPs) have been identified, of which saxitoxin
is the major toxin (Table 1), a sodium channel blocker, with primary symptoms of paresthesias and paralysis.