IL-33 initiates its signalling pathway by binding to the ST2 receptor, or also known as IL-1R4, with variants which are comprised of ST2L, sST2
, ST2V, and ST2LV [1, 4-7].
Blood samples for the evaluation of total, LDL, and HDL cholesterol; triglycerides; glucose; creatinine; serum albumin; uric acid; natrium; potassium; sST2
and NTproBNP were collected in the morning, after overnight fasting and after a period of 5-10-minute rest.
In patients with chronic HF episodes, sST2
acts as a predictor of both all-cause and cardiovascular death .
One of these plasma aliquots was used for determination of IL-6, NT-proBNP, hs-cTnT, and sST2
. All patient samples were measured in 1 batch approximately 1 month after the recruitment period.
which can function as a decoy receptor of IL-33 could be another factor that contributed to the decreased levels of IL-33 observed in PE.
Therefore, considerable efforts have been made to broaden the range of biomarkers, and there was a remarkable increase in the number of HF biomarkers after the year 2001.[sup] Among all these candidate markers, soluble suppression of tumorigenicity-2 (sST2
) had been regarded as the promising one.[sup],
Markers of matrix and cellular remodeling, including collagen propeptides and degradation products, matrix metalloproteinases and their inhibitors, as well as markers that also play a role in the immune system, including growth-differentiation factor 15 (GDF-15), sST2
, and galectin-3 have been evaluated as prognostic biomarkers in stable IHD.
In addition, CST was demonstrated to bind sst2
, and both preproCST and sst2
are upregulated during macrophage differentiation and after LPS stimulation, suggesting CST might be an endogenous ligand for sst2
in the human immune system [163, 164].
, also released under conditions of mechanical stress and myocyte injury and death appears to act as a "decoy" receptor for IL-33, preventing its binding to ST2L, leading to a circumstance favoring myocardial cell death and ventricular fibrosis and remodeling.
ST2 protein exists in at least 3 isoforms through diverse splicing: a transmembrane form (ST2L), a soluble form (sST2
), and a novel variant .
Finally, we adjusted for other promising novel biomarkers such as estimated glomerular filtration rate [eGFR; cystatin C-based Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration (CKDEPI) formula], and finally for sST2
, growth differentiation factor 15 (GDF-15), NT-proBNP, and hs-troponin I as they became increasingly available in clinical practice.
ST2 is expressed on the surface of various cellular types, and its gene has three splicing variants, two of which are physiologically important: a soluble variant of ST2 (sST2
) and a surface-attached form (ST2L) [3, 4].