Sex-biased predation on newts of the genus Taricha by a novel predator and its relationship with tetrodotoxin
comes from its gallbladder, and if cut up incorrectly, the organ will release its poison.
Accumulation of tetrodotoxin
(TTX) in Pseudocaligus fugu, a parasitic copepod from panther puffer Takifugu pardalis but without vertical transmission--using an immunoenzymatic technique.
, saxitoxin and their significance in the study of excitation phenomena.," Pharmacological Reviews, vol.
Constant et al., "Tetrodotoxin
for moderate to severe cancer-related pain: a multicentre, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-design trial," Pain Research and Management, vol.
An infrequently encountered but important cause of LMND in Australian dogs is ingestion of marine animals, particularly puffer fish or blue-ringed octopus, containing tetrodotoxin
is not exclusive to puffer fish or blue-ring octopus, as the toxin has been identified in some terrestrial frogs and newts as well as several marine sea stars and sea slugs [87-89].
Blockade of TNF signaling during prolonged tetrodotoxin
(TTX) treatment prevented scaling up of excitatory synapses in hippocampal neurons.
Bean, "Roles of tetrodotoxin
(TTX)-sensitive Na+ current, TTX-resistant [Na.sup.+] current, and [Ca.sup.2+] current in the action potentials of nociceptive sensory neurons," The Journal of Neuroscience, vol.
levels in eggs of the roughskin newt, Taricha granulosa, are correlated with female toxicity.
([dagger]) Other agents implicated were tetrodotoxin
(3 outbreaks) and Campylobacter, chaconine, Paragonimus, other virus, sulfite, and Trichinella (1 outbreak each).
Another research has demonstrated that SOP was similar to tetrodotoxin
(TTX), and it inhibits the [I.sub.Na], [I.sub.NCX], and diastolic [Ca.sup.2+] concentration, in addition to contractility in rabbit ventricular myocytes.
The abnormal area on the axon could be formed due to channels blocking; for example, the potassium or sodium ion channels can be, respectively, blocked or disabled by adding cell toxins such as tetraethylammonium (TEA) and/or tetrodotoxin
(TTX) in experiments.