Warnings and Precautions Fluid retention and cardiac failure: Thiazolidinediones
, including ACTOS, can cause dose-dependent fluid retention, which may exacerbate or precipitate heart failure.
Whereas, GLUT4 and other specific adipocyte genes are ameliorated by thiazolidinedione
treatment (Diaz-Delfin et al.
Among the patients receiving oral agents, 51% received a sulfonylurea, 22% received metformin, 21% received a thiazolidinedione
, 4% received a meglitinide, and 1% received acarbose.
PPAR[gamma] regulates lipid and glucose homeostasis and is responsible for the antidiabetic actions of thiazolidinediones
such as troglitazone.
Some people who took troglitazone, another thiazolidinedione
, have had serious liver problems.
Patients were treated with Onglyza 5 mg (n = 882) or placebo (n = 799), both alone or as add-on to metformin, glyburide or a thiazolidinedione
Trulicity has been studied as a stand-alone therapy and in combination with other type 2 diabetes therapies, including metformin, sulfonylurea, thiazolidinedione
, and prandial insulin.
Rosiglitazone, a thiazolidinedione
, is marketed as Avandia, and as Avandamet (combined with metformin), and Avandaryl (combined with glirnepiride); generic formulations are also available.
The researchers concluded that their results "provide evidence that pioglitazone is associated with an increased risk of bladder cancer, whereas no increased risk was observed with the thiazolidinedione
Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the expanded use of BYETTA (exenatide) injection as an add-on therapy to basal insulin, with or without metformin and/ or a thiazolidinedione
in conjunction with diet and exercise for adults with type 2 diabetes who are not achieving adequate glycemic control.
The studies include the Action to Control Cardiovascular Risk in Diabetes (ACCORD) study presented at the American Diabetes Association meeting in June, which found greater all-cause mortality among those on intensive glucose-lowering therapy than among those on standard therapy, and meta-analyses reported last year that found an increased risk of myocardial infarction and cardiovascular mortality associated with the thiazolidinedione
Chart reviews of 12,521 new diabetes drug initiations among 9,546 diabetic enrollees in Kaiser Permanente Northwest revealed that patients typically gained about 2 pounds within a year of starting a sulfonylurea, 9 pounds after initiation of insulin, and 11 pounds with thiazolidinedione