MRM transitions of the antibiotics were as following: chlortetracycline, m/z 479.4 a 444.1 and m/z 479.4 a 462.1; ciprofloxacin, m/z 332.5 a 314.5 and m/z 332.5 a 231.4; enrofloxacin, m/z 360.0 a 432.0 and m/z 360.0 a 286.0; sulfamethazine, m/z 279.1 a 92.0 and m/z 279.1 a 124.0; sulfaquinoxaline, m/z 301.0 a 156.0 and m/z 301.0 a 108.0; tetracycline m/z 445.4 a 154.0 and m/z 445.4 a 410.2; oxytetracycline m/z 461.2 a 426.2 and m/z 461.2 a 443.1; erythromycin m/z 735.1 a 158.2 and m/z 735.1 a 576.2; tylosin
, m/z 916.5 a 174.0 and m/z 916.5 a 100.9, were the qualifier and quantifier ions, respectively (Han et al., 2015).
. A review of pharmacokinetics, residues in food animals and analytical methods.
Non descriptive goats showing respiratory distress with pyrexia, bilateral nasal discharges, coughing and mortality were confirmed as cases of contagious caprine pleuropneumonia and were successfully treated with Tylosin
and thus controlled the horizontal spreading of the disease within the flock.
HPLC method was compared with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the detection of tylosin
and tylosin-related compounds in water .
and stunted diatom growth when exposed to tylosin
, an antibiotic used in
The antibiotics used are mainly tetracyclines (oxytetracycline, doxycycline, remacycline, and chlortetracycline), sulphadimidine, dihydrostreptomycin, piperazine, albendazole, tylosin
, ivermectin, and benzylpenicillin which can lead to possible cross- and co-resistance [42, 43].
Krist'an, "Metabolism of L-threonine and fatty acids and tylosin
biosynthesis in Streptomyces fradiae," FEMS Microbiology Letters, vol.
Peridy, "In vitro determination in milk of the Minimal Inhibitory and Bactericidal Concentrations of celquinone, marbofloxacin, tylosin
and spiramycin for bovine mastitis pathogens," Revue de Medecine Veterinaire, vol.
Distribution sulfamethazine, chlortetracycline and tylosin
in manure and soil of Canadian feedlots after subtherapeutic use in cattle.
According to a report from the US Department of Agriculture, ionophores, tylosin
, chlortetracycline, and oxytetracycline are frequently given to feedlot cattle (3).
Douthwaite, "Resistance to the macrolide antibiotic tylosin
is conferred by single methylations at 23S rRNA nucleotides G748 and A2058 acting in synergy," Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol.
For example, tylosin
is on the WHO's list, even though it's not an important human antibiotic.