Caption: Figure 1: Receiver operating characteristic curves for selected serum and urine markers used to diagnose moderately increased albuminuria (uACR between 30 and 300 mg/g) among T2DM patients with eGFR > 60ml/min/1.73[m.sup.2]: (a) serum cystatin C (sCysC); (b) serum uromodulin (sUMOD); (c) serum NGAL (sNGAl); (d) urine NGAL (uNGAL
); (e) urine NGAL/creatinine (uNGAL/Cr); (f) urine transferrin (uTRF); (g) urine KIM-1 (uKIM-1); (h) urine KIM-1/creatinine (uKIM- 1/Cr); (i) urine IgG (uIgG).
Vasoconstriction of renal arterioles and exposure to inflammatory cytokines causes injury to renal tubules Infections BK virus Immunosuppression reactivates dormant virus in urinary tract causing renal tubular injury and hemorrhagic cystitis Adenovirus Tubulointerstitial nephritis and cystitis Etiology Management/potential therapeutic options Sepsis Treatment of sepsis with appropriate medication Nephrotoxic medication Amphotericin B Measurement of urinary UNGAL
levels may serve as early biomarker ofAKI.
Normal distribution of pNGAL, uNGAL
, and plasma creatinine was analyzed.
In order to support the usefulness of uNGAL
as a reliable marker of graft injury and to clarify the role of this promising biomarker in the prediction of kidney function beyond the first week after transplant, we conducted a prospective study to
The urinary concentrations of NGAL (uNGAL
) increase in a consequence of tubular dysfunction associated with acute kidney injury caused by ischemia and secondary tubular damage .
In contrast, urinary excretion of uNGAL
was significantly higher in diabetic rats compared to healthy controls and diabetic insulin-treated animals (Figure 5(b)).
In a prospective, double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trial of 26 hyperuricemic patients undergoing cardiac surgery, there was no observed benefit on postoperative serum creatinine (SCr) in rasburicase versus placebo treatment groups, although novel AKI biomarkers such as urinary NGAL (uNGAL
) tended to be lower in rasburicase-treated patients .
Due to high biological variability of urinary NGAL (uNGAL
), in CKD patients, uNGAL
measurements should be accompanied by the assessment of urine creatinine concentration and calculation of uNGAL/creatinine ratio (uNCR) .
However, we did not observe any significant advantages when analyzing normalized uNGAL
instead of the absolute uNGAL