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References in periodicals archive ?
It is important to note that although an involuntary response, whether vocal or non-vocal, is elicited by an unconditioned stimulus in a reflex relation, the same response or response class may also be evoked under other environmental conditions.
In another specific form of classical conditioning-termed trace conditioning-a silent period elapses between the occurrence of the conditioned stimulus and the delivery of the unconditioned stimulus (i.e., the conditioned stimulus and unconditioned stimulus are not paired at precisely the same moment, but rather, there is a silent period between the presentation of the conditioned stimulus and unconditioned stimulus).
Table 4 Long-lasting depolarization (LLD) data obtained from Hermissenda photoreceptors under various control (NSW alone) and bryostatin- administered, associative training conditions Experimental conditions (1) LLD (s) SEM Animals tested NSW Control: 4-TEs 23.05 2.48 21 Bryostatin (0.25 ng/ml): 4-TEs 54.67 0.72 12 NSW Control: 6-TEs 18.50 1.64 12 Bryostatin (0.25 ng/ml): 6-TEs 49.17 1.11 6 NSW Control: 9-TEs 55.42 0.40 12 Bryostatin (0.25 ng/ml): 9-TEs 52.61 1.26 18 (1) Animals received either 4-, 6- or 9-paired conditioned stimulus/ unconditioned stimulus training events (TEs) at 1-min inter-trial intervals.
We used a mild electric shock that was administered to two of the receivers as an unconditioned stimulus. As is well known in experimental psychology (Woodworth & Schlosberg, 1961), electric shocks cause a sudden rise in skin conductance.
Additionally, repetitions are required to develop the link between the unconditioned stimulus and the conditioned one.
The unconditioned stimulus (US) was an electric shock (50 V AC) applied to the grid floor for 2 s.
Taste aversion in albino rats using centrifugal spin as an unconditioned stimulus. Psychological Reports, 33, 467-470.
The conditioned stimulus is a particular--kind of activity in which the child has been indulging; the unconditioned stimulus is the slap, or whatever constitutes the punishment in this case, and the response is the pain and fear produced in the young child.
For Pavlov, learning was stimulus substitution; the conditioned stimulus (CS) substituted for the unconditioned stimulus (UCS).
In a stimulus-stimulus pairing (SSP) procedure a neutral stimulus is temporally correlated with an already established reinforcer (similar to the pairing of a neutral stimulus and an unconditioned stimulus in Pavlovian or classical conditioning) resulting in the neutral stimulus gaining strength as a conditioned reinforcer (Gollub, 1970).
Notwithstanding, a key controversial issue refers to whether classical human conditioning is a low level process, or otherwise dependent on higher order cognitive processes such as contingency awareness between conditioned stimulus (CS) and unconditioned stimulus (US).
In the EC procedure, the initial stimulus is termed the conditioned stimulus (CS) and the second stimulus is labeled the unconditioned stimulus (US).