More specifically, Damasio (1994) postulated that the VMPFC
plays a key role in the production of somatic markers which are responsible for emotional reactions associated with prediction of long-term outcomes of specific responses in given situations or contexts.
For an additional example, see id, for the story of JZ, another patient for whom the removal of part of his VMPFC
caused a disturbance in his social decisionmaking faculties.
The people with VMPFC
damage are more likely to make utilitarian choices in moral dilemmas - judgments that favor the aggregate welfare over the welfare of few individuals.
When a different group of healthy but heavy social drinkers received an alcohol taste cue, researchers saw increased activity in the VmPFC
, the ACC, and the ventral striatum (Filbey et al.
It's some of the best support we've seen so far for the theory that the vmPFC
is integrating emotional assessments from the amygdala," says cognitive neuroscientist Molly Crockett of University College London.
Extinction learning in humans: role of the amygdala and vmPFC
Importantly, the vmPFC
is activated when subjects are recalling extinction learned the previous day, similar to rodent studies.
Learning is just one example of how the "mind" can inspect its own content, he notes, and the VMPFC
may be a key to the broader issue of self-awareness.
Increased CRP similarly predicted decreased dorsal striatal to vmPFC
and presupplementary motor area connectivity, which correlated with decreased motor speed and increased psychomotor slowing.
For instance, using the IGT, Haaland and Landre (2007) found that BPD patients were more likely than controls to choose decks that were associated with poor long-term outcomes - a pattern similar to that observed in VMPFC
lesion patients (see also Maurex et al.
T]he magnitude of this vMPFC
difference between judgments of