(*) The whole-cell vaccines
differed; some are not available in the United States.
But the whole-cell vaccine
's rampant immune reaction carries a downside.
Components of whole-cell vaccines
, including lipopolysaccharides and internal proteins, were important in signaling the innate immune system to shape a more robust response.
Polymorphism of Bordetellapertussis isolates circulating the last ten years in France, where a single effective whole-cell vaccine
has been used for more than thirty years.
A whole-cell vaccine
previously provided protection against pertussis, but many adolescents could not tolerate the side effects, Dr.
In the Swedish study, infants received a five-component or a two-component acellular vaccine, the standard whole-cell vaccine
, or no vaccine.
The whole-cell vaccine
contains 2 strains and has remained unchanged since 1976.
Weiner said in an interview "You can still get febrile seizures from a cellular pertussis, but the risk is certainly less" than with whole-cell vaccine
Recently completed field trials suggest that the efficacy of whole-cell vaccine
can decrease substantially >6 months after the third dose and underscore the need for boosting immunity with a fourth dose of DTP (7,8).
Concern over the safety of the whole-cell vaccine
has led to the development of so-called acellular pertussis vaccines, made by chemically inactivating a purified pertussis toxin.
Using this model, they found that the acellular vaccine, whole-cell vaccine
, and natural infection all induced comparably high antibody titers.
In contrast, other investigators found a significant decrease in GD in the period after introduction of the whole-cell vaccine
. Because the size of our archival time period may have precluded our ability to distinguish a temporally relevant shift in GD, we also calculated GD among isolates from early (1935 to 1955) and late (1956 to 1965) in this period.