The concept of cross-species transplantation, known as xenotransplantation
, is the transfer of living cells, tissues or organs from one species to another.
The alpha-Gal epitope (Galalpha1-3Galbeta1-4GlcNAc-R) in xenotransplantation
. Biochimie 2001;83:557-63.
During September-October 2014, the New York State Department of Health identified Q fever in five patients with exposure to a treatment known as live cell therapy, an alternative medicine practice involving injections of fetal sheep cells, which is a type of xenotransplantation
. Investigation revealed that a group of U.S.
as the Encounter Between the Human and the Nonhuman
Tonjes, "Infection barriers to successful xenotransplantation
focusing on porcine endogenous retroviruses," Clinical Microbiology Reviews, vol.
Autonomous decision making and thus informed consent may also be put at risk by other factors surrounding xenotransplantation
. The decision to embark on xenotransplantation
may be primarily driven by an instinctual wish to survive due to a lack of other viable alternatives.
Allotransplantation refers to transplantation between members of the same species; xenotransplantation
involves transplanting tissues between one species and another.
Yet animal-to-human transplantation (xenotransplantation
) and the making of chimera (mixed-species animals and even humans when we put other species into our bodies) deliberately tears down the species barrier, with what should be obvious consequences.
"When I first raised that question in the xenotransplantation
community 10 years ago, I got blank looks," he said.
In its submission to Toi te Taiao, the Bioethics Council, on xenotransplantation
(animal-to-human transplantation), NZNO also called for any new procedure involving xenotransplantation
to be reviewed by a national ethics committee, rather than regional ethical committees.
Because of research and development of specific pathogen-free swine as special organ and tissue donors for human xenotransplantation
over the past decade, the list of possible adventitious agents in materials derived from swine is quite comprehensive (3).
The Xeno Chronicles tells the story behind one of the latest techniques in xenotransplantation
. David Sachs, an immunologist at Harvard Medical School, genetically engineered miniature pigs to lack the sugar molecules that trigger organ rejection in humans.