AXBTAirborne/Air Expendable Bathythermograph
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Black circles show where AXBTs or AXCTDs were deployed; green circles mark ALAMO deployments.
Black circles show the positions where AXBTs or AXCTDs were deployed, and green circles where ALAMO floats were deployed.
The air-sea sensible and latent heat fluxes are computed from the GPS dropsonde and AXBT measurements using the COARE bulk flux algorithm (Fairall et al.
The air-sea fluxes are computed from the GPS dropsonde and AXBT data.
The aircraft sampling strategy allowed for coherent observations of MCS structure and microphysics using the Doppler radar and microphysics probes and the large-scale atmospheric and ocean environment using the GPS dropsonde and AXBT measurements, which were not available in TOGA COARE.
We are grateful to Patrick Chuang, Mikael Witte, and Bob Black for their help in processing the microphysics data; Scott Brown for collecting the IR SST imaging data; David Trampp, Jeff Kerling, and Qing Wang for the AXBT data; Tammy Weckwerth and Scott Ellis for helping with the aircraft missions using S-PolKa data near Gan Island; Jeff Hawkins for providing the satellite data in real time; Jon Gottschalck and Nick Hall for real-time forecasting support; and Ed Ryan for assisting with the cloud-cluster tracking during DYNAMO.
Other WP-3D flight tracks focused on the large-scale environmental conditions, including water vapor, temperature, and winds from transects between the island and ship sites (Kerns and Chen 2014b); the coupled atmosphere--ocean boundary layers; convectively generated cold pools and air--sea fluxes using the global positioning system (GPS) dropsondes; the airborne expendable bathythermographs (AXBTs); and the downward-looking infrared (IR) imaging spectrometer called the Japanese Dynamic Earth Observation by Very Long Baseline Interferometer (JADE) (Table ESI).
2007), measured surface wind and rainfall; and airborne expendable bathythermographs (AXBTs) measured the ocean temperature in the upper 500-800 m.
ITOP was able to estimate directly the oceanic influence on air-sea fluxes by measuring ocean and atmospheric properties simultaneously using pairs of dropsondes and AXBTs deployed in each storm's inner core.